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Ferdows
نسخه ایمیلی صفحه

نام ونام خانوادگی (دلخواه) :  پست الکترونیک :    ایمیل گیرنده :   
بعد از زدن دکمه ارسال اطلاعات زیر به ایمیل گیرنده ارسال خواهد شد.

Ferdows, the Land of Red Rubies
     

City of Ferdows, center of Ferdows county is located in north-west of Southern Khorasan Province on 58°, 10´, 34˝ latitude and 1275 meters altitude with 200 meters distance from Birjand. Ferdows is neighbor of Bajestan in north, Aysak in south, Islamieh in east and Boshrooyeh in west. Ferdows was destroyed severely in earthquake on September 1, 1968 and nothing was left but a pleasant memory and some historical works and buildings.

Historical Background
Installation signs in south side of Khoncheh Hill in Ferdows indicate a four-thousand years history for this city, namely Bronze Age. The region of Baghestan throne is also mentioned as a Neolithic site.
Toon historical city has been considered as one of the cities in early Islamic period enjoying urban context and old-fort, districts, fence and rampart. Congregational [central great mosque] and Kooshk Mosques are two of the oldest works in Toon. Due to its great cradle arches and half-columns hidden under newly repaired wall in later years, Kooshk mosque is comparable with mosques in the first Islamic period such as Tarikhaneh of Damghan. A historical inscription dated 554 Hegira (1175 AC) as the most ancient historical inscription in Toon is embedded in this adobe building. Ashkalol-Alam [Forms of World] by Jeyhani is the first historical book in fourth century of Hegira in which the name of Toon has been described as a city in Ghohestan province. Moghaddasi in his book entitled “Ahsanol-Taghasim” [the best divisions] says: “Toon is a thriving and populated city. Its people are weavers. It has also great scientists. The city has a citadel in which the entire context exists. People drink water in a drain canal in public”. Naser-Khosro (444 Hegira) describes Toon in his itinerary book as following: “Toon had been a great city, but it was almost destroyed when I traveled there. The city had flowing water and canals. There were many gardens in east side and the city had a strong rampart. It was told that 400 workshops had been working in the city to weave pileless carpets, and too many pistachio trees there were in the city”.
Obviously, Toon has been one of the important cities from early Islamic period and has had a specific economical and social position. In 1929 Toon was renamed to Ferdows by governmental approval. Toon (Ferdows) was destroyed severely in an earthquake in 1968 and nothing was left but a memory and some historical works and buildings.

Significant Historical Attractions:

Congregational Mosque (Great Mosque) of Ferdows
National Registration Number: 1222, Age: Seljuk and Khwarizmi era, Location: South-east of historical region of Toon

فردوس مسجد جامع فردوس


This mosque had been on central part of Toon and today, it is in south-east of Ferdows. Jame’e Mosque of Toon had two balconies and its main structure was destroyed in an earthquake in early sixth century of Hegira. Porch of Kiblah and summer and winter Shabestans [bedchambers] in north and south sides are what have remained of the mosque. The side of porch of Kiblah is the purest side of mosque historically attributed to Khwarizmi era due to its brick facade and model of arch and small arch (Gothic arch) in comparison with balcony and plan of Jame’e Mosque of Zuzan. Jame’e Mosque of Ferdows is a mosque with two balconies made on Khorasani Style and is aged to fifth and sixth centuries of Hegira.
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Olya Religious School
National Registration Number: 1321, Age: Safavid, Location: Toon historical region, south-east of Ferdows

فردوس مدرسه علمیه علیا فردوس
 
فردوس مدرسه علمیه علیا فردوس

Mir Ali Beyk is the name of benefactor of this school who repaired it at the end of Safavid era. The school was used by religious scholars before happening of earthquake. Architecture of schools is unique. There is a porch behind entrance gate and position of lecturer is located in eastern side of porch in octagonal shape and with a dome cover, and place of praying is located in western side of porch with beautiful painting decorations (Mogharnas). Entrance gates of school yard are in porch shape in east and north-east sides, and there is an octagonal little garden in the center of yard. School has four balconies and student chambers are constructed on three sides of the school.

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Ferdows Mountain Castle
National Registration Number: 29931, Age: Middle Islamic Era, Location: 10 km to the South of Ferdows

فردوس قلعه کوه فردوس


Ataol-Molk Joveini writes in Tarikhe Jahangosha [history of conquerors]: “The most developed and greatest castle among 70 castles in south of Ghohestan is located in 5th km of south-west of Ferdows. The castle is limited to a dreadful precipice in three sides. The only way to access castle is through a strait in south-west of mountain (with lower slope). Towers have 5 meters height and are built of rubbles and plaster mortar. When was thriving, the castle had two labyrinthine walls and rampart and some garrets and the area of the final wall was about 1000 meters. The walls do not have geometrically regular surface. At the final part, water reservoirs are excavated deep in the rocks with 10 meters length and about 2 meters width. Water reservoirs were filled by rain and snow and were a help for people when they were surrounded. Reservoirs have not been the only water resource for residents of castle because they had dug a well at the bottom of south wall of castle known as Chahe Ghonoot (well of prayer) today. There are effects of a small cylindrical tower on the ridge of mountain maybe related to turn fire or to espial. Obviously, the castle had been adjacent over neighboring plains and old commercial roads in ancient times especially road of caravans in plain of Toon.

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آخرین بروز رسانی : 1392/07/22 00:30:32  تعداد مشاهده : 3790  نویسنده / ویرایشگر : مدیر سایت