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نسخه قابل چاپ 
Sarayan, Land of Cisterns

Sarayan is one of the counties in Southern Khorasan Province, which has approximately an area of seven thousand square kilometers. To the north of the county, there is the district of Kakhk, Gonabad, and to its northeast, it meets the district of Khezri Dasht Beyaz, Qaen. The city of Qaen is located in the east of the county, and Khoosf District, Birjand, is in the south of it. Sarayan county also borders with Ferdows to its west. The geographic coordinates of Sarayan are 58° 31' longitude and 33° 51' latitude.

Historical Background
Archaeological studies of the region indicate that the history of the settlement of prehistoric societies around Ayask district dates back to fourth and third millennia B.C. Furthermore, the historical background of Sarayan goes back to pre-Islamic times. The historic dam of Zou is remained from those periods. In the Islamic era, this region was a part of Ghohestan Province, which was captured by the Army of Islam during the early years of Arab conquest. Discussing the events of the year 31 AH, Ibn al-Athir mentioned Ahnaf bin Qais who entered Khorasan through Tabas. In the geographic sources of the early centuries of Islam, there is no mention of Sarayan. However, archaeological investigations of the region confirm the existence of hills and areas related to the Seljuk period. Considering the rise of Ismaili movement in this era and the capture of Ghohestan castles, such as Qala Sarayan Castle, one can conclude that this region enjoyed boom and prosperity during the Seljuk period, in the fifth and sixth centuries AH. It should be noted that the hills of the Sarayan county related to Seljuk period are among the most prominent and unique monuments of Southern Khorasan. In the archaeological investigations of Sarayan county, conducted by the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Southern Khorasan, 54 historical attractions have been identified including buildings, enclosures, caves, historic hills, and old trees. The age of these historical works is in a range from pre-Islamic eras to Qajar period.

Prominent Historical Attractions:

The Grand Mosque of Sarayan
National Register No: 8734; Age: Safavid era; Location: Ferdows county, Ayask rural district, inside the city of Sarayan

سرایان مسجد جامع سرایان
سرایان مسجد جامع سرایان

The city of Sarayan is located in the northwest of Birjand, the capital of Southern Khorasan Province, at a distance of 160 km. There are several historical monuments in the city of Sarayan, including caravanserais, mosques, Hussainias, and Ab-Anbars (cisterns). A prominent feature of Sarayan county is the abundance of active Ab-Anbars. According to some researches, the Grand Mosque of Sarayan dates back to Safavid period. Its porch of 13 meters high is adjacent to two prayer halls (Shabistan). The courtyard of the Mosque is enclosed with a wall covered with shallow arcades. This wall is known to be related to Qajar era. The beautiful mihrab (prayer niche) of the Mosque is decorated with carved stucco and Surah al-Fatiha is inscribed on it. Moreover, the vault of the inner part of mihrab is decorated with Mogharnas. Indeed, there are very beautiful Mogharnas at the top of the mihrab and the porch roof, which has made the face of the porch so graceful and elegant. The façade of the porch is trimmed with bricks design and the western prayer hall has beautiful decorative schemes on the corners.


Seh Qaleh (Three Castles) Grand Mosque
National Register No: 16469; Age: Safavid era; Location: The old fabric of Seh Qaleh city

سرایان مسجد جامع سه قلعه

This most prominent historical monument of the city is located inside the old fabric of Seh Qaleh city and is recognizable from far away. It has a porch and a prayer hall and other parts of it have suffered many changes. The porch is located in the southwest corner of the courtyard and has a gable vault. It has a width of 5 m and a depth of 9.2 m.
The roof of the porch is supported by three groins with a width of 1 m and domes. At the end of the porch, there is the mihrab of the building, which is decorated with stucco and karbandi. The prayer hall is roofed with the support of a quadrilateral column – with the size of 1 × 1.3 m – and groins, based on the central column and wall edges, as well as coved domes. The monument lacks a slate or a document indicating the date of the construction. However, considering the similarities between this mosque and others related to Safavid era, it most likely belongs to Safavid period and has undergone changes during Qajar era. The building is the most important and prominent historical monument of Seh Qaleh city. It is also considered as the biggest and the most prominent historical mosque of the county after the Grand Mosque of Sarayan

Sarayan Caravanserai
National Register No: 8733; Age: Safavid era; Location: Inside the city of Sarayan

سرایان کاروانسرای سرایان

The caravanserai is a two-portico building and its architectural spaces are: an entrance located at the southern side, with gable vault and karbandi decorations; a vestibule leading to minor rooms on the both sides and the courtyard in the front; several cells for the repose of caravans; two porches on the northern and southern sides; and a stable located behind the porch and northern cells. Sarayan Caravanserai is a monument related to Safavid era and is known as Rabat-e Shah `Abbasi.

Ab-Anbar of Caravanserai
National Register No: 8736; Age: Safavid era, Location: Sarayan City

سرایان آب انبار کاروان سرا سرایان

The Ab-Anbar, along with the caravanserai, the bathroom, and the market, constitute a cultural complex. Its architectural elements include entrance transom, stairway, pashir (dispenser), and water tank. The entrance transom has a gable vault and Rasmibandi decorations. The technique used in the stairway is that of barrel and then comes the space for pashir and water tank. The monument belongs to Safavid period and the main materials used in it are bricks, plaster, and mortar.


Meysam Bazar
National Register No: 29323; Age: Safavid to Pahlavi era; Location: Inside the city of Sarayan

سرایان بازار میثم سرایان

The bazaar is a set of eighteen shops or workshops, which date back to Safavid, Qajar, and Pahlavi periods. Since the surrounding buildings, including bathroom, Ab-Anbar, and caravanserai, belong to Safavid era, the bazaar obviously was constructed during that period. Some parts of the bazaar still preserve the originality of Safavid architecture. However, the whole set of bazaar have a history related to Safavid, Qajar, and Pahlavi eras. Today the bazaar is called Meysam Bazaar, which is named in the modern time. It is also called Ahangaran (Ironsmith) Bazaar, since a part of it belonged to ironsmiths.


Touran Shah Tomb
National Register No: 15276; Age: 9 century AH; Location: Inside the city of Sarayan

سرایان مقبره توران شاه سرایان

This monument is located at the southern edge of the city of Sarayan and in an old cemetery. It has an octagonal design and its entrance is at the northeastern side. The entrance has a gable vault with 3.4 m width and 8.3 m depth. Immediately after the entrance transom comes the inner space of the tomb and dome, which also has an octagonal design. The dome features a Calotte design and is supported by small trompes, which link the octagonal space to the circle.


Dragon Cave (Baton)

سرایان غار اژدرها بتون سرایان

The cave is located in Sarayan County at a distance of 8 km to the east of Charmeh Village. The cave is proposed as a national natural monument and is one of the natural wonders and a unique cave in the world. Dragon cave, which is a limestone cave, is one of the most beautiful natural phenomena in Iran and unique in its kind especially due to the existence of long passages and many ponds in it. Such an eye-catching beauty can only be seen in a very few caves such as Ali Sadr Cave in Hamadan or Mollis Caves in France.



آخرین بروز رسانی : 1392/07/22 00:31:45  تعداد مشاهده : 3985  نویسنده / ویرایشگر : مدیر سایت